Balance sheet of the oil project Chad / Cameroon
The Erdol pipeline between Chad and Cameroon was considered a model project of the World Bank. It should prove that with the revenues from raw materials also in autocratically governed landscaping poverty fighting is possible. Now the World Bank moved from the project.
Map: Chad / Cameroon Development Project
It started like a March: "Representatives of Esso came to, sensitize us,. We should also have different projects for our village."Tamro Mbaidjehuernan, the village boss of Ngalaba, sits under a colossal mango tree and remembers the start of the Erdol project in Chad. "You have promised us schools and health stations" he does not get access to drinking water as well as a strain and a market."
Tough thousands of people in the villages in the olforder area hoped for a little prosperity at the end of the 1990s. The oil and the pipeline as well as the shipping in the neighboring state of Cameroon should be a model project of the World Bank: "It is an unprecedented project," it is called in a press release of the Bank in June 2000 "in which the richness of the oleas revenue directly to the benefit of the Arms is used."
Under the driving of Esso Chad, a subsidiary of the US Olgigant ExxonMobil, calls for a consortium, which also includes the US company Chevron-Texaco and Petronas from Malaysia, the Rohol in Chad. From there it is sent through a subterranean pipeline 1000 kilometers far through Cameroon to the Atlantic Custage for loading on supertanker. For $ 4.2 billion, the corporations want to demand OL in Chad for 25 years. EXXON, the world’s largest company in the world, powered with one of the poor countries in the world, surprised by decades of burger.
At that time, representatives of civil society had pointed out, such as Samuel Nguiffo, lawyer and director of the Center Pour L’Environnement et Le Developpement (CED) in Cameroon. At that time they had already known that Olicht in some countries had asked dictatorships, corruption and violation of human rights, he explains, "but the World Bank said, with their participation, the OL will advance the development."
Beginning of the pipeline. Image: Chad / Cameroon Development Project
Mango lounge without fruit
When the army of Baulets began eight years ago with the work for the maturity requirement, they put wide sandpits around Ngalaba along the numerous OL boreholes. For her lost country, the villagers received individual compensations. Esso Chad today is proud about the done. Since the beginning of the project, around 19 million dollars have been paid to individual severance payments, it writes ESSO in the first quarter of the Group 2008.
The Group had begun in Cameroon ten years ago, without negotiations with the population to pay reimbursements. For a banana dude 50 Eurocent, for an Olpalme two Euro, for cocoa and coffee smoker a maximum of 2.50 euros and for orange and mango bums 5.50 Euro per copy. Who invales themselves and signed a receipt, was photographed and thus renounced any claims. The farmers complained and NGOs of both Lander support the population in the 375 villages along the pipeline in their toth fight for higher decalversions. The Chadian Agricultural Engineer Djeralar Miananol calculated the value for the mango tree. "You can not just fall such a tree!"He is still exciting today. Of these whole generations could live. "A tree that produces 10 years has a value of converted 1500 euros. Esso has accepted that at the end."
But then a new problem occurred, the village boss of Ngalaba. The mango bums were not so profitable as before. The many Esso vehicles whirl up rough amounts of dust on the hunchful sand pistes, which decreases only slowly and cover eight months a year people, animals and plants with a rust-noted layer. The blatter of many actually evergrouper tree giants become hard as parchment and roll up. The dust prevents photosynthesis; the tree die. Esso Chad claims that the slopes regularly flush with water, but the population does not notice anything about these improvements.
In June 2000, the World Bank rose to the controversial project despite international civil society campaigns. Organizations from Chad, Cameroon, USA and Germany, U.a. Misereor, for example, had criticized the completely inadequate participation of the population and the poor estimate of environmental damage. But the World Bank wowed $ 200 million loans and $ 46 million for accompanying programs in the two African countries. This gave the controversial project the painting of seriositat and "development aid". In addition, she relies on strict environmental requirements and committed the Chadian government to a poverty-fighting law.
Like a fat spider
The "Home of the World Greatest Drilling Team" calls Esso the basis of Kome. Wide strain drove there, on her walks are red-painted pumps. A seemingly clean and harmless technology. Behind fence lies the grumping osholmaschinery: a rough plant in the sun brightening coarse plant with steel pumps, four turbines for the factory power plant, Oltanks and control center. Only a few locals live in the residential quarters of the workers. Most of the approximately 800 skilled workers come from all over Lander: Sudafrika, India, Philippines.
Like a fat, fearless spider lies the base in the center of the zone and spreads greedy. The nodes of your network are unknown, the tubes are underground. Instead of how planned three Eryol fields are now exploited six. Instead of 300 places, the drills have meanwhile gotten to the earth at almost 500 find points. In the meantime, the originally calculated land consumption was exceeded by 65 percent.
Even the poverty in the country has not removed significantly. State President Idriss Deby, who had wrestled to power in 1990, bought in 2001 from tax payments of the Olconzerne in the high of 25 million US dollars. In 2005 he undertaken the poverty fighting law and weapon buying were officially allowed. The World Bank dear after small changes of the law the corrupt autocrats of Deby. The "model project" in this also violent dictatorship is in failure. "The Mission of the World Bank does not exist to change governments," says Noubissie Ngankam, Manager at the World Bank in Chad. "Corruption is no reason to avoid land."
Endemical corruption, lack of competence and inaccurate transparency in Chad had tried to prevent the World Bank and the Consortium – often after request by the International Network – with numerous monitoring and management tarpaulins. In addition, the World Bank and Civil Society for more or less independent control instances. And the overall process monitored independent experts of three international commissions.
The ORGOL project is undoubtedly one of the world’s best projects. At least on the paper. The official apparatus of the Deby regime but can not look into the cards. And even Esso Chad and the World Bank refuse Important information such as Berilengar’s DATHOL, representatives of civil society in the official control college, reported: "It is difficult to get information about production figures, number of boreholes or the OlPreis in Chad."
Floating terminal. Image: Chad / Cameroon Development Project
Fisherman without fishing
Before Kribi, the most beautiful seaside resort of Camerun, lands the black gold from the underground pipeline in a floating terminal. Two kilometers from the picturesque beaches lies the colossel in the light haze of the tropical sea. Up to five times a month, tankers at the loading show, most of the US, which remove half of the Chadic Ols. On land, the fishermen unload their piros. The Fischer Joqui Munenge does not pay out that he has not hazarded today. "Since the pipeline has been installed, it’s very hard to find enough fish to live."Nowadays, the fishermen needed two days to catch enough fish. "Earlier we came after five hours on the sea back to land."He will not even send more his six children to school.
Firmin sembo explores the Cameroon Environmental Organization Focarfe, the consortium has blasted a rough natural reef directly in front of the custodian. Exactly where the locals have traditionally fished. "That was an ocological niche for the fish," he explains, "Cotco has built as a replacement a four kilometer-long critical reef of rubber tires."This maaking of the Cameroonian subsidiary of the OL consortium, Cotco, from July 2006, the World Bank agreed. But now they refuse to scientifically examine the impact of this rubber riff on fish stocks. With the argument, there were comparison data from the time of the natural reef. Firmin holds for a bad excuse: "One could rise for a comparison of data on the marine life of other riffs in front of the Kuste Cameruns," he says. "Exxon must take his responsibility."
But the state of Cameroon is not interested in a declaration. He is 15 percent involved in the Olgesellschaft. The regime of the long-term potentate Paul Biya does not think about the revenue from the pipeline project. Here, the World Bank satisfied with the Blobs insurance that the money is spent on poverty fighting. Again, no question can be spoken of independent control: The so-called control body is located directly in the national Oldol society. The fierse long years the black box of the prasident.
The prestige project of the World Bank may be considered failed. Despite the total revenue, for example, Chad of 2.5 billion dollars. Responsible in the World Bank, Consortium and Governments have ignored many suggestions for civil society. Without exception all the examination organs complain about the inflexibility of their actions, including the international international. Even the Bank’s "Final Report" sets in 2006 – in addition to many patrons – in the Burokratenjargon, it is "impossible to confirm that growth from the OL significant impact on the poor Bevolecker of Chad, especially in the rural areas."And on," The level of uncertainty is so increased that it is still impossible to recognize a sustainability somehow at this stage."
Samuel Nguiffo from the CED brings it to the point. The poorest in Chad had not benefited from the oleasplugs, he sets. "If there was ever a project on this planet, which the World Bank had to export well, then it was this. I do not think it was at odds. I think you have done all humanity, but you had to recognize the difficulties ". The civil society has warned the bank, for example, from the beginning, "that Prasident Deby will never accept to control the oleau revenue – and also from outside! We knew this from the first day. And I think the bank knew it too."
After a coup attempt in February, Deby has secured the full access to all oleaslifts – and repeatedly set all the control mechanisms agreed with the World Bank. The World Bank Hulle in silence. Until she explained completely abruptly at the beginning of September, Chad did not implement the agreed poverty fighting for years. Now the country has paid his loans back and the project was finished. The organizations of the large international network reacted with gross emport and "bitterness" on this sudden jerking and demand that the World Bank face the "scandalosis balance" of their model project, analyze the reason for this "sensational failure" and a "fund to remedy the Damage.